CONCLUSIONES JORNADAS ABIERTAS SOBRE DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE

DiálogosRB.net

Red de conocimientos de la Red Española de Reservas de la Biosfera 

DiálogosRB.net es el nombre abreviado del proyecto Red de conocimientos de la Red Española de Reservas de la Biosfera, desarrollado con el apoyo de la Fundación Biodiversidad, del Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. 

Aquí se recogen las conclusiones extraídas de los intercambios online de las Jornadas abiertas sobre Desarrollo Sostenible del proyecto DiálogosRB.net, realizadas los días 7 a 15 de noviembre de 2017. Por tanto, estas conclusiones no contemplan la totalidad de los resultados del proyecto, aunque se incluirán en ellos.  

Estas conclusiones se presentan agrupadas en los temas que se propusieron para discusión en las Jornadas y que han recibido aportaciones de los participantes. 

 

Empezar una actuación de DS 

Papel del liderazgo. Se destaca de forma generalizada el papel imprescindible de la persona o personas que lideran la iniciativa, como catalizador para que la comunidad se ponga en marcha. Se marcan algunos requisitos de su forma de actuar: 

  • Empatía y flexibilidad, son necesarias para mantener los procesos participativos en el tiempo. 
  • Capacidad de coordinación. 
  • Explorar y conocer otros programas y proyectos que se están realizando en el territorio y buscar la colaboración de quienes los han impulsado. Se señala que esta carencia es frecuente en casos de responsables de parques o espacios protegidos. 
  • Escuchar atentamente las necesidades de las personas para poder encontrar opciones de desarrollo adecuadas a ellas. 
  • La cooperación se considera la herramienta básica con la que hay que trabajar. 

RB figura de coordinación. Las RBs podrían asumir un papel activo en la articulación de actuaciones coordinadas entre los responsables de la conservación y las distintas instancias que fomentan el desarrollo rural. De hecho, cubren habitualmente esta función. 

Búsqueda de la sostenibilidad. El desarrollo sostenible  se considera cercano a la búsqueda del bienestar y, en ese sentido, se trata de encontrar el ajuste entre situaciones de crecimiento inviables y eventos de crisis, sin que supongan la desarticulación total de las comunidades. El resultado depende del diálogo, la comunicación y el trabajo colectivo de la comunidad. También se destaca el papel catalizador de la Administración por poder aportar recursos para el inicio, aunque es necesario trasladar el compromiso a la población. 

Cualidades del gestor. Varios de los comentarios apuntan a cualidades del gestor y sus necesidades de formación, además de a su forma de trabajar, como figura clave en el liderazgo de un proceso social de innovación. 

 

Comunicar con los agentes sociales 

Requisitos. Un requisito previo es conocer bien la comunidad a la que se dirige la comunicación. Para ello es necesario observar y programar una acción “a medida”, sin perder de vista aprender de los errores y rectificar. 

Resultados esperables. En cuanto a los resultados hay que contar con que es difícil conseguir un compromiso social continuo y efectivo, salir de la crítica fácil a un sistema más trabajoso de aportar propuestas/ ejercer la crítica constructiva. Los medios de masas pueden ser un buen cauce para crear un interés inicial o curiosidad, pero las campañas directas mediante contacto personal obtienen un mayor grado de compromiso. En algún caso se señala que nunca parece bastante la comunicación con la sociedad, es una tarea siempre insuficiente. 

Diana de los mensajes. Reforzar el sentido de identidad y lazos con el lugar, empoderamiento de la comunidad en relación con el tema objeto de la iniciativa, promover la confianza y la cooperación entre agentes sociales. 

Compromiso. Se hace referencia a varios aspectos que están más asociados al tema compromiso e implicación. 

Escasez de comunicación de las RBs españolas. También se hace notar la gran cantidad de información útil que proporcionan las RBs españolas, que no está accesible normalmente, ni para el público ni para los gestores. Podría solventarse con un mayor esfuerzo de comunicación por cada una de ellas o por la demanda a UNESCO de facilitar el acceso a la información que tiene de cada una de las RBs de la Red Mundial. El acceso a esa información favorecería la conciencia de los agentes sociales de pertenecer a una acción de escala mundial a favor del desarrollo sostenible. 

 

Cómo llegar al compromiso (Implicación) 

Implicación/comunicación.  No parece fácil separar ambos conceptos, porque es difícil separar uno de otro en la práctica. Se pone el énfasis en generar el “discurso social” en primer lugar, para contar con el marco de comprensión del problema, el clima social para llevarlo a cabo y poder trasmitir la propuesta de solución. Se cita también la necesidad y la utilidad de generar espacios de confianza y los buenos resultados derivados de la cooperación, como demuestran las experiencias estudiadas en el proyecto DiálogosRB.net. 

Modelo de interacciones entre agentes. Se destaca la necesidad de empoderamiento de la comunidad, en línea con la idea de democracia deliberativa, más allá de la democracia representativa, y de formas de gobernanza policéntrica y distribuida, según muestra alguno de los casos de estudio de DiálogosRB.net. 

Papel del liderazgo. Las personas estarán más dispuestas a implicarse en el cuidado del bien común cuando existen personas de referencia que ayuden a encauzar los deseos colectivos, cuando se dan relaciones de confianza y se comparten criterios morales y éticos, cuando existe un conocimiento compartido sobre el socioecosistema y sobre cómo el comportamiento individual afecta a los demás. 

El consenso. Además de la comunicación se señala la necesidad de contar con herramientas de transformación del territorio, que pueden ayudar a poner de acuerdo a los distintos agentes para ir en una misma dirección.  

 

Formación 

Aprendizaje abierto.  El aprendizaje para la sostenibilidad debe ser abierto y centrado en el pensamiento crítico (Gough y Scott, 2003), ya que ante un futuro incierto, debido al cambio global, desconocemos el estado final deseado.  

Sistemas educativos formales y no formales. La educación es fundamental para generar una sociedad basada en valores. El reto es integrar los sistemas formales e informales (medios de comunicación, la sociedad) para desarrollar capacidad de análisis crítico y mover a la reflexión, más allá de recibir información. Eso redundaría en una mayor eficacia y eficiencia de los distintos sistemas. Se señala la falta de práctica en la formación universitaria de ciertos profesionales (ingeniería de Montes, por ejemplo) como una carencia sistémica. 

Aprendizaje por la acción. Se señala el interés de tramas educacionales que den oportunidades a la persona para que transforme cada momento de su vida en un momento de aprendizaje, de compartir, de interesarse. En los casos de estudio de DiálogosRB.net hay numerosos ejemplos. La enseñanza en torno a problemas reales puede aportar elementos transformadores y ayudar a establecer las conexiones entre lo local y lo global, lo individual y lo comunitario, lo teórico y lo práctico. 

Aprendizaje para la acción. Varias aportaciones apuntan a mejorar los sistemas de aprendizaje para mejorar la acción en cualquier escala. Entre ellos: desarrollar el pensamiento crítico; accesibilidad de ciertos conocimientos técnicos para los ciudadanos en general, más allá del ámbito sectorial; la recogida y recopilación de saberes tradicionales. Esto facilitaría mejorar la formación de todos los agentes intervinientes, mediante aportaciones en sentidos cruzados, y plantear actuaciones más acertadas. Alguien considera que proyectos del tipo DiálogosRB.net debería constituir una especie de depósito de buenas práctica. 

 

Papel de las mujeres 

Los comentarios sobre las mujeres van en dos sentidos igualmente importantes: uno el de su propia formación y desarrollo personal y otro el de la capacitación para incorporarse a una actividad remunerada. 

Desarrollo del potencial femenino. Se plantea como una reivindicación respecto del desarrollo de la persona, formulado como “Conseguir la plena igualdad de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres es una cuestión de justicia, de derechos fundamentales y de responsabilidad ética”. 

Contribución femenina al desarrollo comunitario. La marginación de las mujeres supone una gran pérdida para las posibilidades de desarrollo sostenible. “Nos estamos perdiendo talento, capacidades y habilidades, puntos de vista, experiencia, motivación y, por tanto, posibles soluciones, vías de desarrollo, nuevas formas de gestión e incluso de aprendizaje”. 

Ámbito preferente en torno a “valores de vida”. A menudo la intervención de la mujer es fundamental en aspectos relacionados con la comida, la cría del ganado, el cultivo… Tiene un enfoque especial en relación con la familia, el sentido de lugar, la tierra… en lugar de centrarse en “valores de mercado o corporativos”, sin que se limite a ello en exclusividad.  Esto aporta al desarrollo otro punto de vista más próximo a la economía del bien común, de empresas del ámbito de la economía social y solidaria, etc., lo que pone en juego otros valores respecto del desarrollo. 

Formación como recurso básico. Activar el potencial de las mujeres necesita una acción generalizada de formación en las dos direcciones señaladas arriba: para potenciarlas en tanto que ciudadanos activos y para capacitarlas como agentes económicos. Ambos se complementan mutuamente. 

Concienciación del resto de la sociedad. La promoción del sector femenino necesita una acción complementaria de concienciación del resto de la sociedad para que reconozca el potencial de este sector y el interés de incluir su punto de vista. 

 

Relaciones rural-urbano 

Grave desajuste. Los recientes incendios forestales de Galicia y norte de Portugal han sido ampliamente comentados, con referencias a documentos de otros comentaristas externos, incluidos técnicos cualificados y sectores universitarios. Se considera un síntoma de la marginalidad a la que se ha relegado al medio rural, que da lugar a un profundo desajuste en su identidad y en sus funciones. Este hecho es igualmente aplicable a otras áreas fuera del territorio afectado por la ola de incendios. De ahí surge la necesidad de plantear urgentemente una reflexión colectiva de fondo, con participación del medio rural y el urbano, los técnicos, las poblaciones locales y los representantes políticos. La finalidad sería establecer un amplio consenso social y político en torno a las políticas territoriales y de desarrollo rural. 

Algunos rasgos de la situación. Se han hecho algunas puntualizaciones en relación al carácter de ruralidad, que para algunos se refiere a los pueblos aislados con pocas oportunidades de desarrollo social y económico, con bajos servicios y baja calidad de vida. Algunos otros centran su discurso en la brecha urbano-rural derivada del “des-precio” histórico de lo rural, del que se deriva una infravaloración del ganadero/agricultor como cobrador sistémico de subvenciones, y un concepto del medio rural como el lugar de esparcimiento del mundo urbano donde sobran sus habitantes. Las precarias condiciones socio-económicas y, sobre todo, la baja estima propia y ajena de su condición social empujan a los habitantes rurales a abandonar el territorio (o a descuidarlo), de lo que se derivan muchos problemas insuficientemente evaluados. 

Carencias de la conservación convencional. El enfoque conservacionista heredado de décadas anteriores ha introducido patrones que han contribuido a la percepción de agravio del medio rural: se han limitado sus prácticas, se han impuesto normas que no pudieron discutir y aún hoy no tienen opción a discutir, se ha ignorado el conocimiento local sobre el territorio y los procesos de interacción de los usos tradicionales con la conservación… El mundo rural, de forma muy extendida, no recibe retornos por ese sacrificio impuesto y no percibe ser protagonista de tales decisiones, ni identifica qué beneficios le aportan.  

Iniciativas integradoras. Paralelamente a este proceso de deterioro también han surgido iniciativas que experimentan modelos para armonizar la conservación y el desarrollo y, sobre todo, que ofrecen modelos de gobernanza integradores, donde cuenta la dignidad de los agentes y sus puntos de vista. El proyecto DiálogosRB.net tiene su razón de ser en trasmitir los conocimientos que se producen en las reservas de la biosfera a lo largo de la implantación de actuaciones de este tipo. En los diálogos establecidos en el proyecto también se ha introducido información sobre otras iniciativas muy interesantes que trabajan en el mismo sentido, como los Bancos de Conservación de la Naturaleza o los proyectos de Custodia del Territorio. En tales iniciativas el papel de la administración a varios niveles, las entidades sociales y los agentes individuales aúnan fuerzas en experiencias que pueden ofrecer conocimientos y modelos para extender.  

Propuestas para seguir explorando la vía de la integración. Un nuevo enfoque en esta línea debería plantear: 

  • Restaurar el reconocimiento de la dignidad del mundo rural en sus cuatro cuestiones fundamentales: cuidado del medio ambiente, calidad del alimento, modelo agrario y emancipación del mundo rural.  
  • Plantear una gran operación de formación de los agentes del medio rural, promoviendo su capacitación para convertirse en agentes activos de una transformación adecuada al momento actual: nuevas tecnologías, capacitación técnica sectorial, formación en estrategias comerciales… 
  • Facilitar la presencia respetuosa de los ganader@s-agricultor@s-gestor@s en el medio rural, como garantía para su conservación. 
  • Mejorar los servicios básicos que aseguren una vida digna, muy especialmente los medios que permitan la conexión con el resto de la sociedad. 
  • Estudiar y ayudar a visualizar las conexiones entre lo rural y lo urbano y diluir las contraposiciones. Integrar en esta operación la visión que aportan a la misma los agentes del medio rural, sustentada en los conocimientos prácticos derivados de vivir sobre el territorio. 
  • Establecer corredores ecológicos que conecten los centros de las ciudades con el medio rural próximo y también con el más lejano. 
  • Las reservas de la biosfera ofrecen numerosas iniciativas que trabajan en este sentido. El apoyo a estas iniciativas puede contribuir al mantenimiento de los ecosistemas sin bloquear su dinamismo y su evolución. Eso reforzaría la función de las reservas de la biosfera como proveedoras de experiencias demostrativas, a disposición de quien lo necesite. 

Un enfoque de largo alcance. Los efectos del cambio global previsiblemente agudizarán las presiones sobre el medio rural actual, al igual que sobre el mundo natural. Basta con mirar el incremento de 83 millones de habitantes anuales de la población mundial y tratar de imaginar cómo incide eso en la demanda de todo tipo de recursos y qué supone para el sistema en términos de contaminación y cualquier otro tipo de distorsión, para comprender que caminamos por la senda de la insostenibilidad más evidente. Ante eso, no parece posible que los sistemas que conocemos nos sirvan para una gestión adecuada en muy pocas décadas. Por tanto, al ejercicio que se propone en los puntos anteriores habría que introducirle un ambicioso enfoque de pensar el esquema en su totalidad para encontrar un encaje viable a las relaciones entre mundo natural, territorio en general (lo rural incluido) y las formas de hábitat y de vida de una población disparada. Este sería el nudo gordiano de la “sostenibilidad” que buscamos, sin dejar, ni por un minuto, de actuar y experimentar en lo próximo e inmediato. 

 

Espacio Natural Protegido – Reserva de la Biosfera (ENP/RB) 

RB espacio multifuncional. Una gran diferencia de una RB con un ENP es la flexibilidad del concepto que permite mucha versatilidad en su aplicación. Las RBs son descritas como sitios de aprendizaje, lugares modelo, sitios de innovación…, aunque siempre destaca su papel activo, de experimentación. 

El papel de las personas en una RB. Otra diferencia fundamental es el papel de las personas en la aplicación práctica de una RB. Una RB consiste, en esencia, en el compromiso voluntario, más allá de lo que exigen las leyes, tanto para las instituciones implicadas como para los agentes sociales del territorio. Sobre esta base, la RB sirve de motivo aglutinador en torno a un proyecto territorial participado, como muestran las experiencias analizadas en DiálogosRB.net. En un ENP la ley define lo que está permitido y lo que está prohibido y las personas tienen un margen mucho más estrecho para promover iniciativas propias. Eso hace que el papel de una y otra figura respecto de la conservación sea muy distinto. 

Enfoque amplio de la conservación. La RB propone conservar valores naturales, etnográficos y patrimoniales en todo su territorio, mediante patrones de uso sostenible, aunque no esté en su totalidad bajo el amparo de un ENP. En este sentido, aunque la figura sea compatible con la de un ENP, o complementaria, responde más a las exigencias actuales del desarrollo sostenible (ODS, Agenda 2030 NU) 

Por otra parte, los expertos aseguran que la conservación de la naturaleza ha progresado cuando las comunidades rurales se han empoderado de su territorio y han sido capaces de dialogar hacia arriba con el marco de gobierno correspondiente y hacia abajo con los nichos de innovación. 

La participación. Es un componente ineludible de la práctica en las RBs. Por ello, en el trabajo de interacción con la población y las instituciones son herramientas imprescindibles la información, la comunicación y la educación ambiental, para fomentar el compromiso libre e informado. 

La RB y el territorio. Según la modificación del año 2015 de la Ley 42/2007 la zona núcleo de una RB pueda ser una ZEPA o ZEC de la Red Natura 2000, en España. Esto redundará probablemente en un mayor protagonismo de la figura RB y mayor repercusión en definir modelos de desarrollo sostenible, al no surgir a la sombra de un ENP con una imagen consolidada. Con ello también se amplían las opciones de territorios que pueden optar a ser denominados RB.  

Pero alguien se pregunta si queremos más cantidad de RBs o más calidad, en cuanto al grado de profundización en su aplicación. En todo caso la Red Española de Reservas de la Biosfera es destacada como un gran potencial de experiencia acumulada para proporcionar abundantes modelos de gestión, tanto a escala nacional como internacional. 

 

Perfil del gestor 

Algunos rasgos destacados. Resaltan la importancia de tener la capacidad para generar y visualizar un proyecto para el territorio, a la vez que permanecer a la escucha de las necesidades y aspiraciones de la población. Se podría sintetizar en la habilidad para hacer visibles las necesidades de la comunidad en forma de una propuesta de actuación.

 

Acerca de Dialogos

Cristina Herrero Molino. Licenciada en Ciencias Geológicas y Profesora de Enseñanza General Básica. Toda la vida profesional ha girado en torno a temas ambientales y ciencias de la tierra. Principal dedicación: docencia universitaria en las universidades de Sevilla y Autónoma de Madrid y, la más prolongada, desarrollo del Programa MAB de la UNESCO en España y coordinación de la Red Española de Reservas de la Biosfera. Ha participado muy activamente en la organización de dos de los cuatro encuentros mundiales de reservas de la biosfera (Sevilla, 1995, y Madrid, 2008) y en la elaboración de los documentos elaborados en ellos, y también en la elaboración de los documentos recientes del Programa MAB: Estrategia MAB 2015-2025 y Plan de Acción de Lima 2016-2025. Desde 2016, Consultora desde la empresa YÉFIRA ALFA S.L.
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