Agricultura ecológica y valores ambientales

¿Es posible una agricultura compatible con valores ambientales?

Hay respuestas prácticas que nos dan pautas, aunque nadie dice que vaya a ser sencillo. En la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga), a partir de 2008 se generó una de esas respuestas que el Proyecto Diá va a analizar como una experiencia práctica de éxito.

Se trataba de encontrar líneas de desarrollo local para paliar los efectos de la pérdida de empleos ocasionada por la crisis del turismo de la Costa del Sol, principal fuente de empleo para los habitantes de las sierras vecinas. Coincidía también con una situación de semiabandono de la agricultura tradicional local.

La Reserva de la Biosfera impulsó una iniciativa de revitalización de la agricultura local aplicando criterios de sostenibilidad y adaptación a las demandas actuales. Los resultados superaron en mucho a las previsiones iniciales. Algunos ejemplos son elocuentes. Se pretendía conseguir que 150 fincas comenzaran los trámites para su certificación como cultivo ecológico (en toda la comarca había 17, según datos de la Consejería de Agricultura y Pesca de la Junta de Andalucía). Al finalizar el programa y una vez realizados los trabajos, el resultado fue de 600 fincas inscritas en el organismo de control acreditado por la Junta de Andalucía. Estas fincas, que pertenecen a 140 productores, actualmente ecológicos, suman en total alrededor de 900 hectáreas de olivar ecológico y más de 100 hectáreas de otros cultivos, como almendros, cítricos, frutales, hortalizas e, incluso, cereales y garbanzos.

El proyecto ha desplegado una gran operación de formación y capacitación muy orientada a colectivos prioritarios, según los criterios del Programa Emplea-verde: más del 16% fueron mujeres, el 44% fueron trabajadores mayores de 45 años y más del 23% fueron trabajadores de baja cualificación. Además, el 81% de los destinatarios de los cursos de formación fueron trabajadores de zonas rurales, áreas protegidas y Reservas de Biosfera.

Sólo con estos datos se puede apreciar la múltiple contribución a la sostenibilidad, desde el punto de vista social, ambiental y económico.

Más información en la wiki del proyecto Diá y en el Informe del proyecto.

Con el proyecto Diá pretendemos extraer las lecciones aprendidas en las experiencias prácticas de éxito, no para repetirlas sino para poder recrear respuestas adaptadas a otras situaciones concretas. Es decir, no pretendemos aprender a hacer cultivo ecológico sino cómo se ha implantado la iniciativa para hacer posibles esos resultados: qué estrategias de participación de los agentes del sector se han empleado, qué información ha sido más útil, qué apoyos se han proporcionado a los emprendedores, etc.

Acerca de Dialogos

Cristina Herrero Molino. Licenciada en Ciencias Geológicas y Profesora de Enseñanza General Básica. Toda la vida profesional ha girado en torno a temas ambientales y ciencias de la tierra. Principal dedicación: docencia universitaria en las universidades de Sevilla y Autónoma de Madrid y, la más prolongada, desarrollo del Programa MAB de la UNESCO en España y coordinación de la Red Española de Reservas de la Biosfera. Ha participado muy activamente en la organización de dos de los cuatro encuentros mundiales de reservas de la biosfera (Sevilla, 1995, y Madrid, 2008) y en la elaboración de los documentos elaborados en ellos, y también en la elaboración de los documentos recientes del Programa MAB: Estrategia MAB 2015-2025 y Plan de Acción de Lima 2016-2025. Desde 2016, Consultora desde la empresa YÉFIRA ALFA S.L.
Esta entrada fue publicada en Agricultura sostenible, Capacitación y formación. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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    La agricultura ecológica no sólo aporta una forma más respetuosa con el medio ambiente y con nosotros mismos de producir alimentos. Pero es además una forma de encontrar como reorientar la producción agraria hacia otras formas de producción reconocidas por el mercado y por la sociedad. De esta forma se pueden encontrar maneras de sostener a la población en el territorio de una forma que les aporte recursos para vivir dignamente, a la par que la producción agrícola evita la sobreexplotación (o contaminación) de la tierra y opta por una forma de uso del territorio aceptable socialmente a medio y largo plazo.

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